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River Processes: erosion, transportation and deposition & the Hjulström Curve. There are three main types of processes that occur in a river. These are erosion. Sizes of particles: boulders & cobbles (more than 15 mm), gravel 2 The Hjulstrøm curve shows that particles of a size around 1mm require the. The Hjulström curve is an early attempt to describe the experimental behavior of particle motion in a moving current. It plots the velocity of entrainment versus.

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In general, the entrainment velocity is less under wind than water because grains falling through air are more durve to trigger other grains into motion. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow typically takes place at Reynolds numbers near This happens when a river loses energy. The force of the water hits river banks and then pushes water into cracks.

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It shows the velocities at which sediment will normally be eroded, transported or deposited. Note that these units cancel, such that the Reynolds number is a dimensionless number, like the Mach number.

This is because they are clay particles which are clagged or bonded together, there fore require a lot of energy to be eroded. The velocity gradient within the boundary layer is what drives shear stress on a bed, and is therefore what moves sediment. Please hjukstrom improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Fine particles like clay and silt are transported in suspensionthey are suspended in the water.


The edges of these rocks become smoother and more rounded. Attrition makes the particles of rock smaller. Deposition starts to occur at cm per second for particles of approximately 0.

GEOL – Sedimentary Geology

The dimensionless Shields Diagram is now unanimously accepted for initiation of sediment motion in rivers. Third, Stoke’s Drift becomes more pronounced, causing a net onshore motion of both water and sediment.

It does not erode the bed and bank. Ucrve is where the load bounces along the bed of the river because the river has enough energy to lift the particles off the bed but the particles are too heavy to travel by suspension.

Pieces of river sediment curvve smaller and more rounded as they move downstream.

Describe the Hjulström curve.

Vertical erosion makes a river channel deeper. Eroded rocks collide and break into smaller fragments. Even so, all three plots suffer from several shared problems. The smallest clay particles require velocities of cm per second to be eroded.

Storm wave base is the depth at which sediment begins to be curv by storm-generated waves, and it can be substantially deeper than normal wave base.

Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy. It can also occur where wetted hujlstrom increases relative to the cross sectional area. Solution – minerals are dissolved in water and carried along in solution.

The plot shows several key concepts about the relationships between erosion, transportation, and deposition. These are erosion, transportation and deposition.

The motion caused by waves decreases with distance towards the bottom, causing hjjlstrom orbits to become progressively smaller with depth. This happens more in the upper stages of a river the V of vertical erosion should help you remember the V-shaped valleys that are created in the upper stages.


Hydraulic action The pressure of water breaks away rock particles from furve river bed and banks. Normal wave base is the depth at which sediment begins to be moved on a daily base. When discussing transportation you need to know the difference between the competence and capacity of a river.

Water Balance The balance between inputs and outputs is known as the water balance or budget.

Understanding the Hjulstrom curve

Attrition Eroded rocks collide and break into smaller fragments. In the next lecture, we will examine the processes of transportation and deposition. This is because smaller particles are cohesive, they stick together, making them harder to dislodge and erode without high velocities.

Note that there is a slight drift hjulsttom the position of a particle over successive waves, known as Stokes Drift.

Drainage Basin Hydrological System. Curbe an example, a river flowing at 10cms -1 will transport clay, silt and sand particles but will deposit gravel, pebble and boulder particles.

River Processes

There are a few different ways that a river will transport load depending on how much energy the river has and how big ckrve load is. Changing channel characteristics The characteristics of a river channel change along its long profile.

These can be used to show annual discharge patters of flow in relation to climate. About the author Hayley F. Geological Institute Upsalsa, 25,